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M.I.D.I. LIBRARIES

 

Please read the notices and disclaimers) below before proceeding to the libraries:

All MIDI Files are the intellectual property of their respective programmers, compilers, arrangers and authors. Studio 46 Music Study Center neither claims authorship and/or ownership of these files unless specifically indicated. In cases where we own copyright the user is hereby granted free license for private, NON-COMMERCIAL USE ONLY. 

We believe these files, while copyrighted to their respective owners, to have been made available to the public domain, and acquired through a public forum (the "World Wide Web") in a spirit which we believe to be in accordance to the "Fair Use" provisions of US Copyright Law. We present these files for educational purposes only. Use, misuse, etc. is the sole responsibility of the downloader.

The files contained in this archive have been

1. All files included, or scheduled to be included, in this library are, in our  opinion, superb examples of that particular composition in MIDI format. They have adhered to published scores, and are within acceptable tempi, interpretation, etc. as to provide students of  music with a high quality example of the composition and hopefully encourage the student to explore the composer and his works.

2. In cases where MIDI files include a copyright notice, along with the authorship, we have received written/electronic permission from the sequencer, who owns the copyright, to include the file in our library, and have indicated the file as © 19xx, by (author's name). In some cases we will provide a link to that author's homepage or e-mail if requested. These files are the intellectual property of their respective author's, and are made available for non-commercial use only. Should you wish to use these files for any other purpose other than personal download, copyright law requires that you obtain permission from the author. Studio 46 can not grant this permission.

3. In cases where an author's name is found in the MIDI file, without copyright notice, we have obtained the file from an electronic service such as the WWW, AOL, Compuserve, et. al., and assume that it is available for "free, public distribution". The author's name is fully credited as "seq. by (author's name)." These files, under copyright law, are nonetheless the intellectual property of their respective authors. 

4. In cases where there is no indication of the name of the author, we will indicated that the sequencer is "unknown".

5. Where file names appear, but are not a functioning link, it means we are in the process of requesting permission from the author to include the file in our library. While we believe this file to be of excellent quality, we can not guarantee that we will receive the author's permission, and that the file will be made

6. This archive is intended to provide a resource for students of music who are seeking high quality MIDI examples of specific works by classical composers. Many of the links, contained within, will point you to a particular sequencer's own Web Site wherein the file resides. Many of these author's have extended their permission to include some of their files directly on this site, but in many cases, that particular author has additional files which we regard as spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes).

IMPORTANT NOTICE TO MIDI PROGRAMMERS:

In the event that you see a file within these libraries in which you a) claim authorship and would like REMOVED, or b) claim authorship and would like to be credited, please send email to us. We will immediately comply with your request.

Certain areas of this site are links to MIDI authors' home pages themselves, or mailto: links and not links to actual files. These links will be clearly identified. The purpose of this is to present as much variety as possible,  give due credit where deserved, and honor the property of others.

MIDI FILES WILL ONLY SOUND AS GOOD AS YOUR SOUNDCARD OR EXTERNAL SNYTH!

"Tweaking" files may be quite necessary, but only in cases where there are multiple instruments involved. Some MIDI files may NOT be GMidi standard, i.e., unless your soundcard or synth is NOT a GMidi standard, you will have to look to the "patch" names for the instruments in the MIDI file as they will appear in your software, This particularly applies to Ensonique, Proteus, Yamaha and other synths that pre-fate the GM Standard.

Even if you have a GM card or synth, ity may be appropriate to adjust the volume levels of the channels. THE VAST MAJORITY of the MIDI files available on this website will NOT require an adjustment... however, should you download a file that "doesn't  sound quite right" , please follow the guidelines above, as every file on this site has been well tested. Thanks


 

SY00381_.WMF (3464 bytes)

Music-Ed Quickbyte: "A" is for a cappella, an indication for vocal music sung without accompaniment. The literal translation means "at chapel" and goes back to the early times in music history where instruments (the creations of Man) were thought to be imperfect, crude and vulgar in comparison to the instrument of God (the Human Voice), and were therefore banned from performance in church. "A" is also for the Aeolian Harp, an ancient instrument consisting of a box with strings stretched over two bridges. When exposed to the movement of air, it produces varying harmonic tones.

 


 

Albinoni, Tomaso Giovanni: b. Venice, 14 June 1671; d. Venice, 17 January 1751 at age 79.

¤ Adagio in G minor [seq. unknown]

Albéniz, Isaac: b. Campródon, Gerona, Spain, 29 May 1860; d. Cambo-les-Bains, France, 18 May, 1909 at age 48. Fundamentally a composer for the piano, many of Albeniz' works have been transcribed for the classical guitar. At age seven, Albeniz passed the entrance examination for the piano at the Paris Conservatory.

¤ Leyenda (aka Austurias, "Legend") trans. for guitar [seq. unknown]


 

SY00385_.WMF (3976 bytes)Music Ed Quickbytes - The musical term batutta refers to the strong beat at the beginning of the measure (commonly referred to as the downbeat); while the instruction a battuta means to return to strict time after a rubato or ad libitum section of a score.

Don't laugh the next time you see someone playing a keyboard with finger vibrato (moving the finger rapidly back and forth in a sideways fashion). It's common for strings, but, believe it or not, the term Bebung (pronounced BAY' boong) refers to this obscure, though valid clavichord technique! Also, with the advent of touch sensitive keyboards, Bebung has taken on a 21st century meaning! (However, piano players take note... vibrato all you want, but it remains purely a "stage effect" as once a piano hammer is thrown, finger vibrato has no effect!)


Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel b. Weimar, 8 March, 1714, d. Hamburg, 15 December, 1788 at age 74. Second surviving son of Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Philipp may be regarded as a founder of the modern piano playing technique as well as one of the originators of the sonata-symphony form. He composed over 200 solo piano pieces and 52 concertos with orchestral accompaniment.

¤ Solfeggietto in C Minor yellowb.gif (326 bytes) [seq. unknown]


Bach, Johann Sebastian b. Eisenach, 21 March, 1685; d. Leipzig, 28 July, 1750. One of the most prolific composers known, fathered twenty children! His grave was unmarked, and was presumed lost until rediscovered during excavations in 1894. Ironically, after his death, his music went largely ignored, until revived by Felix B. Mendleshonn.

Music for Solo Keyboard

¤ Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue [seq. unknown]
¤ Goldberg Variations [seq. unknown]

Two Part Inventions [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 1,
¤ No. 2
¤ No. 3
¤ No. 4
¤ No. 5
¤ No. 6
¤ No. 7
¤ No. 8
¤ No. 9
¤ No. 10
¤ No. 11
¤ No. 12
¤ No. 13
¤ No. 14
¤ No. 15

Three Part Inventions (Sinfonias) [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 1
¤ No. 2
¤ No. 3
¤ No. 4
¤ No. 5
¤ No. 6
¤ No. 7
¤ No. 8
¤ No. 9
¤ No. 10
¤ No. 11
¤ No. 12
¤ No. 13
¤ No. 14
¤ No. 15

The Well Tempered Clavier -Book I [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 1 -Prelude and Fugue in C Major
¤ No. 2 -Prelude and Fugue in C Minor
¤ No. 3 -Prelude and Fugue in C Sharp Major
¤ No. 4 -Prelude and Fugue in C Sharp Minor
¤ No. 5 -Prelude and Fugue in D Major
¤ No. 6 -Prelude and Fugue in D Minor
¤ No. 7 -Prelude and Fugue in E Flat Major
¤ No. 8 -Prelude and Fugue in E Flat/D Sharp Minor
¤ No. 9 -Prelude and Fugue in E Major
¤ No. 10 -Prelude and Fugue in E Minor
¤ No. 11 -Prelude and Fugue in F Major
¤ No. 12 -Prelude and Fugue in F Minor
¤ No. 13 -Prelude and Fugue in F Sharp Major
¤ No. 14 -Prelude and Fugue in F Sharp Minor
¤ No. 15 -Prelude and Fugue in G Major
¤ No. 16 -Prelude and Fugue in G Minor
¤ No. 17 -Prelude and Fugue in A Flat Major
¤ No. 18 -Prelude and Fugue in G Sharp Minor
¤ No. 19 -Prelude and Fugue in A Major
¤ No. 20 -Prelude and Fugue in A Minor
¤ No. 21 -Prelude and Fugue in B Flat Major
¤ No. 22 -Prelude and Fugue in B Flat Minor
¤ No. 23 -Prelude and Fugue in B Major
¤ No. 24 -Prelude and Fugue in B Minor

The Well Tempered Clavier -Book II [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 1 -Prelude and Fugue in C Major
¤ No. 2 -Prelude and Fugue in C Minor
¤ No. 3 -Prelude and Fugue in C Sharp Major
¤ No. 4 -Prelude and Fugue in C Sharp Minor
¤ No. 5 -Prelude and Fugue in D Major
¤ No. 6 -Prelude and Fugue in D Minor
¤ No. 7 -Prelude and Fugue in E Flat Major
¤ No. 8 -Prelude and Fugue in E Flat/D Sharp Minor
¤ No. 9 -Prelude and Fugue in E Major
¤ No. 10 -Prelude and Fugue in E Minor
¤ No. 11 -Prelude and Fugue in F Major
¤ No. 12 -Prelude and Fugue in F Minor
Nos. 13 - 24 unavailable

 


Bartók, Béla b. Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary (now Romania), 25 March 1881; d. New York, 26 September, 1945, at age 64. Bartok's father was an amateur pianist, who died when Bartok was seven years old, so his mother guided his early career. When he was 11 the family moved to Pozony, where Bartok succeeded Dohnanyi as organist in the Gymnasium Chapel. Bartok then went on to take a teaching position at the Budapest Academy of Music from 1907-1934. He appeared as a concert pianist in Salzburg, London, and eventually the US with great success. Bartok devoted many years of his life studying the folk music of his native land, and utilizing its unique modes and rhythms throughout his compositions. In 1940 he returned to the US and remained there for the rest of his life. He is often grouped with composers such as Stravinsky in a 20th century style trend called "Primitivism", though most musicologists regard this as a misnomer, noting it as an erroneous reaction to the developing trends in music of the early 20th century.

Music for Solo Keyboard

¤ Allegro Barbaroso [seq. unknown]

Mikrokosmos [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 40, "In Yugoslav Style"
¤ No. 73, "Sixths and Triads"
¤ No. 82, "Scherzo"
¤ No. 83, "Melody with Interruptions"
¤
No. 97, "Notturno"
¤ No. 101, "Diminished Fifth"
¤ No. 113, "Bulgarian Rhythm"
¤ No. 122
¤ No. 123
¤ No. 124
¤ No. 125
¤ No. 126
¤ No. 127
¤ No. 130
¤ No. 131
¤ No. 133
¤ No. 136
¤ No. 140
¤ No. 141
¤ No. 142
¤ No. 144
¤ No. 145
¤ No. 147
¤ No. 148
¤ No. 149
¤ No. 152
¤ No. 153

¤ Rumanian Dance No. 1 [seq. Bob Pomicter]



Suite, Opus 14 [seq. unknown]
          ¤ Mov. 1  ¤  Mov. 2  ¤  Mov. 3  ¤  Mov. 4


Beethoven, Ludwig van b. Bonn, 15 December, 1770, d. Vienna, 25 March 1827 at age 56. Student of Mozart, Beethoven was born into a poor household; both parents were alcoholics, and as a result, he received little general education. He subsequently studied with Haydn, and despite his own ill health and deafness by his forties, he survives as one of the legends in classical music, almost single-handedly forging music into the Romantic Era.

Music for Solo Piano

¤ Für Elise yellowb.gif (326 bytes) [seq. unknown]

¤ Rondo a Capriccio, Op. 129; "Rage Over a Lost Penny" [used with permission]

Sonata No. 8 in C Minor, Op. 13; "Pathetique" [seq. unknown]
          ¤ Mov. 1 ¤  Mov. 2 ¤  Mov. 3



Bernstein, Leonard b. Lawrence, Massachusetts, 25 August, 1918; d. Leonard Bernstein was a modern day musical marvel, composer, educator, performer, conductor... there was little that "Lenny" didn't do with brilliance! He was a student of Walter Piston, Harvard graduate in 1939, and then went on to the Curtis Institute to study conducting, orchestration and piano. He became Koussevitsky's personal protégé at Tanglewood and became a sensation when. on short notice, he was substitute conductor for Bruno Walter. He was musical director of the NY Philharmonic for eleven years, and was given the honor of Conductor Laureate for life.

Orchestral Works

¤ Overture to "Candide" (arr. Piano Solo) [seq. unknown]

¤ West Side Story -Prelude [seq. Bob Pomicter]

¤ West Side Story -Nos. 4c "Cha Cha" & 5 "Maria" [seq. Bob Pomicter]


Bizet, Georges b. Paris, 25 October, 1838; d. Bougival, 3 June 1875 at age 36. Georges Bizet entered the Paris Conservatory at the young age of eleven, studying with Gounod. In 1857 he won the Grand Prix de Rome. He taught piano for a living, and at age 17 composed his Symphony in C Major, finally achieving world acclaim in 1871. Popular rumor has it that he died of grief for the poor reception of his best known work, the opera "Carmen", however history proves otherwise, as "Carmen" proved a sensation, though a controversial one. His exact cause of death was from a throat infection.
 


Brahms, Johannes b. Hamburg, 7 May 1833; d. Vienna, 3 April 1897 at age 63. It was another composer, Schumann, who recognized Johannes Brahms' talent at a young age and brought him to the attention of the world. Brahms became popular as a composer and conductor, and it is often said that Brahms was the logical extension of Beethoven, bringing the symphonic form to even greater heights. Unfortunately, Brahms lived to only compose four symphonies, and died from cancer of the liver, the same illness which killed his father. He composed, in addition to his symphonies, many art songs and piano works, including the popular Hungarian Rhapsodies, though the task of creating the true sound of the Hungarian people was the work of the modern composer, Bela Bartok, whose material was derived from actual folk music.

Music for Piano


Hungarian Dances


¤ No. 3 [seq. unknown]
 

¤ Rhapsodie No. 4 in E-flat Major [© 1998, Bernd Krüeger, used with permission]

¤ Variations & Fugue on a Theme by Handel, Op. 24 [© 1998, Peter R. Wolfe, used with permission]
Variations on a Theme by Haydn, Op. 56b[seq. John Cowles, awaiting permission]

Waltzes [seq. unknown]

¤ No. 1
¤ No. 2
¤ No. 3
¤ No. 4
¤ No. 5
¤ No. 6
¤ No. 7
¤ No. 8
¤ No. 9
¤ No. 10
¤ No. 11
¤ No. 12
¤ No. 13
¤ No. 14
¤ No. 15
¤ No. 16


SY00386_.WMF (4518 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "C" is for capotasto, or more commonly known as the "nut" of stringed instruments. The term has come down to guitar players in its much more familiar form, capo. "C" is also for chalumeau, a French term used to describe the lowest register of the clarinet, and for col legno, a term not uncommon to orchestral string players... it means, literally, "with the wood" and is an indication for the performer to strike the strings with the wooden part of the bow, rather than the horsehair, to produce a percussive effect. The opening movement "Mars" of Gustav Holst's "The Planets" is a good example of col legno in action!

 


Chopin, Frédéric b. Zelazowa Wola, Poland, 1 March, 1810; d. Paris, 17 October, 1849 at age 39. At age eleven he entered the Warcsaw Lyceum, and at sixteen began his studies at the newly founded Warsaw Conservatory. In 1831 he left Warsaw for Paris, where he fell into financial troubles until teaching restored his financial situation. Chopin suffered from ill health throughout most of his life, but his compositional excellence and teaching skills commanded high fees. It has been said that Chopin always played the piano delicately, and even the greatest fortissimo passages were often a mere forte at the hands of this master. To this day, because of the bulk of his material being produced in Paris, students often mistake Chopin to be of French origin.

Works for Solo Piano

Ballades

¤ No. 1, Opus 23
¤ No. 2, Opus 38

Etudes -Opus 10 (1829)

¤ No. 1 in C Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 2 in A Minor [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 3 in E Major [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 4 in C-sharp Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 5 in G-flat Major "Black Key" [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 6 No. 6 in E-flat Minor [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 7 in C Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 8 in F Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 9 in F Minor [seq. John Cowles]
¤ No. 10 in A-flat Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 11 in E-flat Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 12 in C Minor "Revolutionary" [seq. unknown]

Etudes -Opus 25 (1834-36)

¤ No. 1 in A-flat Major [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 6 in G-sharp Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 7 in C-sharp Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 9 in G-flat Major [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 11 in A Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 12 in C Minor [seq. unknown]

Preludes

¤ No. 8 in F-sharp Minor @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 7 in C Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 8 in F Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 9 in F Minor [seq. John Cowles]
¤ No. 10 in A-flat Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 11 in E-flat Major [seq. Anousone Kitisa]
¤ No. 12 in C Minor "Revolutionary" [seq. unknown]

Etudes -Opus 25 (1834-36)

¤ No. 1 in A-flat Major [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 6 in G-sharp Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 7 in C-sharp Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 9 in G-flat Major [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 11 in A Minor [seq. unknown]
¤ No. 12 in C Minor [seq. unknown]



Copland, Aaron b. Brooklyn, NY, 14 November, 1900; d. One of the great American modern day composers, Copland was born of parents who showed little interest in music. In 1921 he went to Paris to study composition with Nadia Boulanger (as did many others of his generation), and in 1925, back in the States, he received the Guggenheim Fellowship. He was an extremely active composer, lecturer, pianist and conductor. His compoistions range from the tonal "American style" of Rodeo to serialism, as in his Connotations for Orchestra. He has written several books on music and received numerous international honors.

Works for Piano

Works for Orchestra

¤ Appalachian Spring (Original Edition, 1944) [seq. © 1996, Robert G. Oulette, freely distributed]


SY00387_.WMF (3128 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "D" is for destro, or "right" (hand). Commonly found in the abbreviation M.D. (manu dexter), or in popular music R.H. We get the word "ambidextrous" from this term. "D" is also for the German term, Dreiklang, which we know much better as the musical triad, and also for the Russian and Ukranian Dumka, a type of instrumental music that contains sudden changes in tempo and in mood.

 


 

Debussy, Claude-Achille  b. St. Germain-en-Laye, France, 22 August, 1862; d. Paris, 25 March, 1918. One of the greatest of French composers, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of ten. In 1884, he had acquired such skill in performance and composition that he won the Prix de Rome, which required he stay in that city until 1887, whereupon he returned to Paris. For a time, he was short on money, and legend has it that he taught a piano lesson the morning of his wedding to pay for the reception. Debussy was the leading force behind the movement known as "Impressionism", a style of writing that resembles program music, somewhat, but rather than telling a specific story, seeks to create a specific mood or ambience through the use of varied harmonies,   timbres, rhythmic variances and imitations of the sounds of nature, all in a manner that can best be described as an understatement... far more subtle that the German Romanticism of the time.


SY00388_.WMF (3006 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbte: "E" is for Einsatz, a German term which indicates the entrance or cue of a musical part, and for another German term, erlöschend, which means dying or fading away. Of course, most musician's favorite musical "E" stands for Encore!

 

 


SY00389_.WMF (2760 bytes)Music-Ed Quick Byte: "F" is for feedback... something very desirable for Webmasters, but most of us guitarists can do without it unless it is controlled! "F" is also for the Fandango, a Spanish dance in 3/4 time, often accompanied by dancers and singers. And least we forget, "F" is also for the highly contrapuntal (and somewhat mathematical) musical form at which  J.S. Bach, among many others, excelled: the fugue.

 


SY00390_.WMF (4526 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "G" is for the Galliard, a lively 16th century dance with an unusual 5-steps per measure! It's also for the gigelira, which is much more commonly known as the xylophone! And what quick-byte on the letter G would be complete without the famous Guitar which (for those of use who play it should know), has its music written in the G-schlüssel (or the "G" or "Treble" Clef! The guitar, however, plays pitches exactly one octave lower than notated, so be careful when tuning to a piano.


Ginastera, Alberto b. Buenos Aires, 11 April, 1916; d. Geneva, 25 June, 1983 at age 67. Ginastera started his piano studies at age seven, and at age twelve entered Williams Conservatory. He then graduated, with highest honors, at the National Conservatory where he became professor of composition. In 1945, with Peron's rise to power he left for the USA, traveled widely in America and Europe and eventually returned to Argentina when Peron was overthrown in 1955. He destroyed much of his earlier works, but received many honors and commissions throughout his life.

Works for Solo Piano

Sonata Para Piano

¤ Mov. 2 -"Presto Mysterioso" [seq. Bob Pomicter]

Grieg, Edvard Hagerup b. Bergen, Norway, 15 June 1843; d. Bergen, Norway, 4 September 1907 at age 64. Edvard Grieg, the nationalist composer of Norway, studied piano with his mother, who was an accomplished concert pianist, composed his first pieces at age nine. At fifteen he entered the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was influenced by Schumann. His most known composition, the two suites from the  incidental music to Isben's play Peer Gynt, contain only eight of the twenty three numbers. His Piano Concerto in A Minor stands as his most notable large scale work. Though his compositions tended to remain in traditional two and four measure phrases, his nationalism can be heard in his use of modes and drone basses which were common to native Norwegian peasant dances and folk tunes.

Works for Solo Piano


¤ "Little Troll, The" from Lyric Pieces, Opus 71 [© 1998 B. Kreuger, used with permission]
 

Orchestral Works

Peer Gynt Suite, No. 1 (1875) [seq. H.J. Roeder]

¤ No. 1 -"Morning"
¤ No. 2 -"The Death of Ase"
¤ No. 3 -"Anitra's Dance"
¤ No. 4 -"In the Hall of the Mountain King"


SY00391_.WMF (3014 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "H" is not just for Heavy Metal anymore! How about the Hammerklavier... the old fashioned name for the piano at about the time of Beethoven? Or, maybe you're a dancing fool, and feel like a Habanera, a Cuban form in 2/4 meter with a distinctive dotted eighth-sixteenth-eighth-eigth note rhythmic pattern (probably the most famous example being from Bizet's "Carmen"). Or if rythmic tricks are your bag, here's one of my favorites: Hemiola -which consists of switching the natural grouping of stress pulses from odd to even or vice versa. (For example three groups of two changes to two groups of three) Try it! It's very tasty!

 


Haydn, Franz Joseph b. Rohrau, Austria, 31 March 1732; d. Vienna, 31 May 1809 at age 77. Haydn, the eventual teacher of Beethoven, was born into a poor family, with no tradition of music. His early training was that of a singer in a boys choir in Vienna until the age of 15, when his voice changed. He continued self study for many years, acquiring intermittent jobs as Musikdirektor, but retained a permanence as Kapellmeister in 1766 to the wealthy Esterházy family. After the death of the Prince, his son dismissed the music establishment, and Haydn moved to Vienna, and later to England with great success. He was a great admirer of the young Mozart, and was instrumental in the development of the symphonic form (composing over one hundred), and directly responsible for the formation of the string quartet as a musical form.

Works for Piano

¤ Sonata in G Major (Hoboken) XVI:40 @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)


SY00392_.WMF (2444 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "I" is for idiophones, which, believe it or not, is the correct term for percussion instruments, other than drums, which are struck, shaken, plucked or rubbed! (Just for the record, so we don't leave out our drummers... drums belong to the family of "membranophones" due to the drum head (membrane) which is stretched over the body of the instrument! And lest we leave out one of the greatest periods of musical composition, encompassing Ravel, Debussy and many others, we conclude our quickbyte with the term: Impressionism.


SY00393_.WMF (3276 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: J is for Jazz, which is the contribution to the music world of the United States. Early Jazz was influenced by blues, ragtime, and Negro Spirituals, but the style took the world by storm, and soon the Europeans (particularly the French) began to assimilate many of its inherent stylisms, such as "swing". "J" is also for Just Intonation, a system of tuning in which all intervals are derived from the intervals of the perfect 5th and the pure major third. It sounds wonderful, but is no longer used today, as modulation to other keys would not be possible.


SY00394_.WMF (3322 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: A musical instrument we all can play... the Kazoo starts our venture into the musicals K's. But let's not forget the Kontrabass, the real name for the stand-up bass! Or we can go really crazy with the Germanic concept of Klangfarbenmelodie, a 20th century term used by composers of serial music to describe the concept and practice of utilizing an instrument's timbre as a structural compositional tool! Finally the word Kreuz, better known as the musical "sharp".


SY00395_.WMF (2840 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: It's time to grab your lute, that instrument that is similar to the guitar, but with a pear shaped body, and play us a Ländler, a slow Austrian dance in 3/4 meter. And just to keep the house in order, make sure you use a good Lietmotif... a musical concept and compositional tool brought to us by Richard Wagner, where certain musical ideas are used to represent people, places or things thorughout the course of a work. They are particularly prevelant in his Ring Cycle, but the use of Lietmtifs, or motives, in general, is found in all good music, and is even used in popular and rock music by the more "classically" oriented groups!

 


 

Liszt, Franz b. Raiding, Hungary, 22 October, 1811; d. Bayreuth, 31 July 1886 at age 74. A piano virtuoso, teacher and eventual music director in Weimar, Franz (Ferencz) Liszt began appearing in concerts at the age on nine. When his family moved to Paris, in 1823, his acceptance at the Paris Conservatory was rejected, because he was a foreigner. He met and befriended many composers of his day, among them Chopin, Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz and Paganini. He had three children, one of whom, Cosima, eventually married Richard Wagner. He took minor orders of the Catholic church, but never became a priest. He toured extensively, and was widely recognized for his pyrotechnics on the piano, but touring adversely effected his health; he died of complications of pneumonia in 1886.

Works for Solo Piano

¤ Mephisto Waltz [seq. Robert Finley]

¤ Tarantella [seq. Robert Finley]


SY00396_.WMF (3380 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: While "M" stands for Music, more importantly it stands for Musika, which to the ancient Greeks, meant ALL of the arts. The Greeks not only advocated music as a key aspect of any citizens education, but gave us our system of modes, as well as the basis of our scale system leading to the modern concepts of Major and Minor Tonality. And let's not forget that it was the Greeks who believed in the spirits of creativity, known to us as the Muses.

 


Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus b. Salzburg, 27 January 1756; d. Vienna, 5 December 1791 at age 35. Much has been written about this extraordinary composer whose music (and his legendary life-story) has stood the test of time; Popularized most recently by the film Amadeus, students should exercise caution in the dramatic treatment of his biography. Mozart, a childhood phenomenon by the age of five, was, indeed, well traveled as a showpiece by his father, Leopold, who profited from his son's talent. By the age of thirteen, Mozart had had an audience with the Pope, had written an opera, and his talent was widely celebrated. Mozart was never financially successful, for he received no lucrative commissions to compose, and his jobs as court musician did not befit his extraordinary talent. The one position which could have made him financially sound, (Kapellmeister in Berlin), he refused, because he wished to remain in his beloved Vienna. What little money he made was acquired through teaching, but he borrowed extensively from his Freemason brothers in order to survive. In spite of his tremendous talent and the popular success of the common people for his works, Mozart died of uremia, and in total poverty. He was buried in an unmarked grave. While there may have been rivalry between Mozart and Salieri, there is no substantial evidence to indicate Antonio Salieri's involvement with the death of Mozart.

Works for Piano

Sonatas for the Piano

¤ Sonata in C Major K. 330 @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Sonata in B-flat Major K. 333 @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)


 

SY00397_.WMF (3222 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "N" is for Neumes, one of the earliest examples of Man's attempt to create a system of music notation. These crude symbols pre-date the modern concept of even the staff, and were more like "shapes" which symbolically represented the curvature of the melody of a plainsong. The familiar musical notation we see today, comprised of clefs, staffs, and notes represents at least a  five century period of evolution! 


SY00398_.WMF (4504 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: All Hail the Lofty "O". As a musical symbol itself this round little fellow takes on several means. Above a note, it indicates a harmonic. In fingering or in guitar chord charts, it indicates an open string. After a chord symbol or and interval , it means "diminished". For those of us into MIDI, the "O" stands for the Ondes Martenot, the grand-daddy of the modern synthesizer! This instrument (ca. 1920's) was capable of playing single notes and glissandi through the use of radio tubes for tone generation. It is somewhat reminiscient of the "thermin" (a different instrument that used an antenna) and had its fair share of music written for it by Varese and Messiaen, as well as many a sci-fi thriller!


SY00402_.WMF (3304 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: Of course, what else can "P" stand for but our familiar Piano, whose real name is either the piano-forte or the forte-piano. The word comes from the terms "forte" (loud) and "piano" (soft) and is a direct indication of what was so outstanding about this instrument, and why it virtually replaced harpsichords and clavichords in musical  households. The piano's unique ability lied in its rather complex "action", which enabled performers to strike the keys with various degrees of pressure, thus producing tone from the quietest "piano" to the loudest "forte". Hence... the "soft/loud".


Prokofiev, Sergei b. Sontsavka, Ukraine, 23 April 1891; d. Moscow, 7 March 1953 at age 61. Pupil of Gličre before entering St. Petersbourg Conservatory at age thirteen, Sergei Prokofiev had already composed an opera at age nine. He was a student in orchestration of Rimsky-Korsakov and graduated with the Rubinstein Prize in 1914. He travelled extensively throughout Europe and America, often performing and conducting his own works. He returned to Russia in the mid-30's, where his works were ill received by Soviet authorities at the time, but before 1960 his works were officially re-instated.


SY00403_.WMF (4974 bytes)Music-Ed Quickbyte: "Q" What else could "Q" stand for except Studio 46's very own Music-Ed Quickbytes, which you find everywhere around our Web Site. It's our way of bringing snippets of music education to you or your child in a fun, non-intrusive style... even when being educated is the furthest thing from your mind!

 


SY00404_.WMF (3642 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: "R" is for Raga, which is the melodic formula used in Indian melodies (similar to a scale)... or for Ragtime, a style of early 20th century piano music in which the left hand plays a steasy "striding" style against a syncopated melody in the right hand. In fact, the term "Ragtime" is actually derived from the descriptive "Ragged-Time". And while we are on the subject of musical styles, there exists Reggae, a Jamaican popular style influenced by American soul music.


 

Rachmaninov, Sergei b. Oneg, USSR, 1 April 1873; d. Beverly Hills, Ca. 28 March 1943, at age 69. One of Russia's greatest Romantic composers, Rachmaninov was born into the aristocracy, but his family's fortune was on a steady decline. He studied piano at both the Moscow and St. Petersburg Conservatories, and by 1892 his works became recognized. He conducted at the Bolshoi from 1904-1906, during which time his music had come under the highest regard... that is, until the Russian Revolution in 1917, when his works were suddenly dismissed as being "bourgeois". This led to a long period of depression and ill health. He fled Russia and eventually settled at Lake Lucerne in 1931. In 1939 the Russian government accepted his music again, no longer considering it "decadent" and he took to touring America, raising monies for the war relief efforts from 1942 until his death from cancer in 1943. He is buried near New York City.

Works for Piano

Preludes, Opus 23

¤ No. 2 in B-flat Major - Maestoso @ Classical Piano MIDI Pagesspotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤
No. 5 in G Minor - Alla marcia @ Classical Piano MIDI Pagesspotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)


Ravel, Maurice b. Ciboure, 7 March, 1875; d. Paris, 28 December, 1937 at age 62. Noted as one of the greatest Impressionist composers, along with Claude Debussy, Ravel studied at the Paris Conservatory for ten years. He was plagued with ill health, but nonetheless lead a successful career. In 1928 he received an honorary Doctorate of Music from Oxford University. In 1933, insomnia made him progressively more ill, an unsuccessful operation to remove a suspected brain tumor (which was never there) caused him to linger in a state of unconsciousness until his death a few days later.

Works for Piano

Alborado del Gracioso [seq. © 1998, Peter R. Wolfe, used with permission]

Toccata for Piano [ seq. Joe Kampse]


Respighi, Ottorino b. Bologna, Italy, 9 July, 1879; d. Rome, 18 April, 1936. Resphigi began his career as a first violinist in the St. Petersburg opera orchestra, while taking lessons from Rimsky-Korsakov. In 1908 he was a ppointed a professorship of composition, and in 1923, became the director at the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome. His compositions were more profoundly influences by the changes in harmony introduced by Debussy and the Impressionists, rather than by the Germanic influences of Wagner, Richard Strauss and Mahler. Respighi compositions are notably lighter and less "bloated" than the followers of the Wagnerian trend.

Orchestral Works

Ancient Airs and Dances

Balletto [seq. unknown]


SY00405_.WMF (5022 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: Scales is the operative "S" word, and what student doesn't know the importance of them! Most scales are composed of seven pitches, with the eighth pitch completing the octave, but other types exist, including the "gapped scales" (Pentatonic is a good example), and the Whole tone scale (comprised of all whole tones), thus yielding six tones to the octave, and the "Chromatic" Scale, all half steps. The word "scale", itself, is derived from the Italian word la scala, meaning ladder; a reference to the note by note (rung by rung) alphabetized order of scales. And every opera buff has heard of the famous opera house, La Scala... when you sing there, you are "at the top of the ladder"!


Schubert, Franz b. Vienna, 31 January 1797; d. Vienna, 19 November 1828 at age 31. Shubert learned violin from his father, a school teacher and amateur musician, and studied the piano from his older brother. His composing was only part time, as his profession was a school teacher, but his songs (more than 600 in total) began to attract much attention and he gave up teaching for the art of composing. An opportunity to teach the children of the wealthy Esterházy children led him to Hungary, but he soon grew home sick for his beloved Vienna and returned home. He died an untimely death from typhoid fever and left behind his famous "Unfinished" Symphony, though two additional symphonies, composed between his sixth and seventh, also unfinished, have been recently discovered.

Works for Piano

Impromptus, Opus 90

¤ No. 2 in E-flat Major @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ No. 4 in A-flat Major @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)

Moments Musicaux, Opus 94

¤ No. 2 in A-flat Major @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ No. 3 in F Minor @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ No. 4 in C-sharp Minor @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ No. 5 in F Minor @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ No. 6 in A-flat Major @ Classical Piano MIDI Pagesspotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)

 


Schumann, Robert b. Zwickau, 6 June 1810; d. Endenich, 29 July 1856 at age 46. Schumann's family was not musical, but as a child he was allowed to study the piano at school, though his mother encouraged him toward a career in law which he finally took to study at Leipzig University. His love for music, however, eventually led him to board with his piano teacher, Wieck, in 1830, but shortly thereafter, at age 22, his right hand became permanently crippled and he pursued the careers of composition and music critic. He eventually married his piano teacher's daughter, Clara, a concert pianist, who encourage his musical endeavors, but marital instability lead him to a near nervous breakdown. In 1850 he accepted a music directorship at Düsseldorf, but resigned after three years due to his rapidly declining mental health, which led him to throw himself into the Rhine River a year later. He was put into an asylum near Bonn, where he remained until his death less than three years later.

Works for Piano

Scenes from Childhood, Opus 15

¤ A Tale of Distant Lands @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Curious Story @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Blind man's Bluff @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤
Pleading Child @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Perfect Happiness @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages  spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Great Adventure @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages  spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Reverie (Traeumerei) @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ By the Fire-side @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages  spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ On the Rocking Horse @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages  spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Almost Too Serious @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ Hobgoblin @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤
In Slumberland
@ Classical Piano MIDI Pages  spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)
¤ The Poet Speaks @ Classical Piano MIDI Pages spotlight_icon.gif (1045 bytes)


Sibelius, Jean b. Hämeenlinna, Finland, 8 December, 1865; d. Jäarvenpää, 20 September 1957 at age 91. In his early life, Sibelius studied the violin. He went to Helsinki to study law, and there met Busoni, with whom he made a life-long friendship. After studying in Berlin and Vienna, he returned to Finland, where he soon was recognized as the Nationlist composer. In the 1920's he retired from composition and suffered from ill health, but eventually completed his 8th Symphony in 1929, which he then destroyed. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage.

Orchestral Works

¤ Finlandia (Symphonic Poem, 1900) [seq. Robert C. Goodyear]


SY00406_.WMF (2790 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: Guitarists may love or hate this, but "T" is for Tablature, which is a diagrammatic and numeric notation system for fret board instruments which represents the placement of fingers, through which, a composition may be learned, without reading actual music notation. Much controversy exists surrounding tablature, which some instructors consider a crutch or substitute for reading music. One fact should be made clear however; Tablature was never designed to replace written notation, however it is most definitely NOT the product of a modern convenience. In fact, tablature predates written notation, and, in the early periods of the development of the modern notation system, tablature was actually more exacting!


Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilych b. Kamsko-Votkinsk, USSR, 7 May 1840; d. St. Petersburg, 6 November, 1893 at age 53. The early years of one of Russia's most beloved composers were unsettled, and in the 1850's Tchaikovsky studied law and became an indifferent lawyer until he entered the St, Petersburg Conservatory in 1862. Three years later he was teaching harmony at the Moscow Conservatory and began serious composition. Failure of his early works, along with serious guilt of his sexuality, often found the composer in deep depressions. He tried to drown himself in 1877, after a disastrous marriage, and nearly went insane. Upon his move to Switzerland he was financially assisted by a Mme von Meck. He was presumed to have died from cholera, but the issue remains in debate as to the circumstances surrounding his death.

Works for Orchestra

¤ 1812 Overture (1882) [seq. unknown]


SY00407_.WMF (3862 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: "U" is for Ukulele, a small instrument, similar to the guitar, with four strings of Hawaiian origin. In many instances, older sheet music from the 30's and 40's have the familiar "guitar grid" symbols, but actually these four-string symbols are the chord grids for the Ukulele, whose popularity became eclipsed by the modern guitar. "U" is also for upbeat, more commonly known as a "pick up" note... but in a stricter theoretical meaning, a beat which is not considered a naturally stressed pulse. These can include the subdivision of each beat, or the weaker beats of the metric constraints of a composition. The term may indicate, also, a generic use of the word meaning "quick" or "faster".


SY00409_.WMF (3766 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: "V" is for vibrations, preferably, of the good kind... and for virtuoso, which is a general term used to describe an extremely accomplished musician. The first virtuoso was often considered to be Niccolo  Paganini, who received his virtuosity by the young age of only eleven! 


Vivaldi, Antonio Lucio b. Venice, 4 March 1676; d. Vienna, 28 July 1741 at age 64. From the age of fifteen, Vivaldi trained for the priesthood, and was ordained in 1703. Always pursuing his musical endeavors more than his priestly duties, he began a long association with the Foundling Hospital, a girl's music school, in 1703, where he served as a violin, and then concert master. Eventually, however, the hospital disowned him, and he died in 1741, buried in a pauper's grave.

Orchestral Works

Four Seasons, The

Spring
Summer

¤ Movs. 2 & 3  [seq. © 1995, Bob Pomicter]

Autumn
Winter


SY00410_.WMF (4686 bytes)Muisc-Ed QuickByte: "W" is for waveform, which is a graphic representation of a sound, showing amplitude and time. The three basic wave forms are sine, sawtooth, and square/rectangular. In the early days of analof synthesis, all sound were created from these waves plus the addition of noise (pink and white). And "W" is also for wolf, or wolf-tone... an unpleasant vibration caused by resonation between the body or cabinet of the instrument and the tone source. (Like when your TV cabinet vibrates during certain bass notes). Guitarists regularly check instruments for wolf notes before purchase!


Widor, Charles-Marie-Jean-Albert b. Lyons, 21 February 1844; d. Paris, 12 March 1937 at age 93. Widor became an organist at Lycée in Lyons at the early age of eleven... not surprising as he studied with his father, and accomplished organist and also an organ builder, as was Widor's grandfather. In 1870, Widor took an appointment at St. Sulpice, in Paris, a position which he held for sixty-four years! In 1890 he became professor of organ and composition at the Paris Conservatory.

Organ Works

¤ Toccata [seq. unknown]


SY00411_.WMF (3506 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: "X"... that's a tough one, unless we use the obligatory xylophone. But in addition, "X" is often used in guitar chord grids to indicated a "muted" or "dampened" string.
Additionally, the letter "X" is used as a "note head" to indicate a sound without a specific pitch (for example, finger snaps, clapping, etc. or a hit on a drum or unpitched percussion.


SY00412_.WMF (3178 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: And now, for "Y"... How about Yodel... we have all heard of it, but what is it? Technically, yodeling, is an Alpine song form based on the rapid alternation between the natural chest voice and the falsetto. And for good measure, here's another "Y"... the Yuehchyn, which is a Chinese guitar!


SY00413_.WMF (2954 bytes)Music-Ed QuickByte: Our last letter "Z" stands for zither, which is an old string instrument, flat in shape, with anywhere from twenty to fifty strings, of which five are used to play melody, while the remaining are used for accompaniment. Two well known examples of the zither can be found in its use in Strauss' "Tales from Vienna Woods" and the movie theme from "The Third Man".  That's it for the Music-Ed QuickBytes!


Note:

Music Ed Quickbytes and MIDI Files are updated periodically. Check back once and awhile to see what is new!

   

 

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